Politics can be defined as the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate between parties having power. It’s activities aimed at improving someone’s status or increasing power within an organization.
RELEVANCE OF THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF POLITICS
The study of politics and power is ancient, the discipline of political science is relatively new. Like other social sciences, political science uses a “scientific” approach, meaning that political scientists approach their study in an objective, rational, and systematic manner. Some political scientists focus on abstract and theoretical questions, while others study particular government policies and their effects.
Political scientists focus upon political systems, including the effect of environment on the system, inputs, the decision-making agencies which render binding public policies, and system outputs. Approaches to the study of government and politics.
Most colleges and universities include political science courses in their liberal studies requirements precisely because an understanding of government and politics is so important. Political science courses are not only excellent preparation for employment, but they better enable people to be informed and active citizens in their community.
FEATURES OF A STATE
(i) Population: One major attribute of a state is population for a state to exist, there must be a given number of people which has no minimum or maximum that will occupy it.
(ii) Territory: A state must possess a definite territory which has no limit to it size. This territory must have clear cut boundaries that will separate it from other state. The term territory refer to not only hard surface of the earth but other things like airspace, waterlake, mountains, natural resources etc
(iii) Government: A state must have a machinery called government that will steer it affairs, Government perform it function on behalf of the state. The existence and survival of a state are maintained by the government
(iv) Sovereignty: The absolute authority of a state to make laws and enforce them throughout the entire territory without approval from a higher power. A state must have the Supreme power to enable it make and enforces law.
Constitutionalism is descriptive of a complicated concept, deeply embedded in historical experience which subjects the officials who exercise governmental powers to the limitations of a higher la Constitutionalism proclaims the desirability of the rule of law as opposed to rule by the arbitrary judge or mere fiat of public officials. Throughout the literature dealing with modern public law and foundations of statecraft the central element of the concept of constitutionalism is that in political social government officials are not free to do anything they please in any manner they choose; they are to observe both the limitations on power and the procedures which are set out in the supreme constitutional law of the community. It may therefore be said that the touchstone of constitutionalism the concept of limited government under a higher law.
An example of constitutionalism is federal laws of the United States government which are consistent with the U.S. Constitution.
(ii) Separation of Power
Separation of powers refers to a system of government in which its powers are divided between multiple branches, each branch controlling a different aspect of government. In the United States, governmental authority is divided between the executive branch, which is controlled by the President; the legislative branch, which is controlled by Congress; and the judicial branch, which is controlled by the Supreme Court. To explore this concept,
An example of separation of powers at work, is that, while federal judges are appointed by the President (the executive branch), and confirmed by the Senate; they can be impeached by the legislative branch (Congress), which holds sole power to do that.
FORMS OF CITIZENSHIP
(i) Citizenship by Birth (Jus soli)
In some countries, when a child is born within the territory of the country, the child is automatically confirmed with citizenship of such country.
Countries such as Canada, Brazil, and Argentina confer automatic citizens on babies born there.
(ii) Citizenship by Registration
A person born in a foreign country can acquire citizenship of another country provided a grandparent is a citizen of that country he’s desirous of obtaining citizenship of. Also, citizenship by registration can also be conferred through marriage.
(iii) Citizenship by Naturalization
A person can obtain citizenship by naturalization if he/she meets the law requirements for such in a country.
(iv) Citizenship by Descent
This is a direct citizenship conferred on a child at birth through his/her parents.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE AFRICAN UNION
(i) Ensuring Credible Elections
The African Union has been monitoring elections in various parts of the continent. This has helped to ensure credible elections and the installation of legitimate governments in many member states. For example, in Madagascar, the AU refused to recognize Marc Revalonmanana in a disputed presidential election in that country. This was because Didier Ratsiraka, the former president had also claimed that he had also won that very election. The A.U. called for a fresh election which eventually led to the victory of Marc Revalonmanana.
(ii) Welfare of African Children
The African Union has done a lot to protect the rights and welfare of Africa children. It has instituted the Day of the African Child to project the rights and interests of children. This Day of the African Child is held every 21st June. The Union has been sponsoring programmes for school children in selected member state.
CHALLENGES OF THE AFRICAN UNION
(i) Financial Problems
One of the main problems of the African Union is the inadequacy of financial resources to prosecute its objectives. The member states find it difficult to pay their membership dues regularly. This is a spillover from the days of the Organization of African Unity. By the time the A.U. was establishing, member states owed the former organization owed US$50m in unpaid dues by member states. This financial problem slows down the union’s activities.
(ii) Prevalence of dictators
Some member states of the African Union continue to be run by dictators and pseudo-democrats.
This is in spite of the fact that they still promote pan-African democracy in member states. Of the 54 member states of the African Union, only 16 were considered truly democratic and only eight of the countries had a free media.
Terrorism is defined as political or religious violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols).
IMPACTS OF TERRORISM ON THE NIGERIA SOCIETY
(i) Direct Economic Destruction
The most immediate and measurable impact of terrorism is physical destruction. Terrorists destroy existing plants, machines, transportation systems, workers and other economic resources.
(ii) Increased Uncertainty in the Markets
Even if you do not live anywhere near terrorist attacks, you might still be negatively impacted indirectly. This is because all kinds of markets hate uncertainty, and terrorism creates a lot of it.
(iii) Increased Nationalism and Foreign Skepticism
The final risk to the economy is political risk. Closing down borders to trade and immigrant workers reduces the size and diversity of economic transactions and limits productive resources.